Shybo – Design of a Research Artefact for Human-robot Interaction Studies

Maria Luce Lupetti

 
   

Abstract


This article discusses the role of Design Research in the field of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). Notably, the Research through Design (RtD) approach is proposed as a valuable method to develop HRI research artefacts due to the importance of having a physical artefact, a robot, that enables direct interaction. Moreover, there is a growing interest in HRI for design methodologies as methods for investigation. The article presents an example of a design process, focused on hands-on activities, namely sketching, 3D modelling, prototyping, and documenting. These making practices were applied to the development of Shybo, a small sound-reactive robot for children. Particular attention has been given to the five prototypes that led to the definition of the current solution. Morphological, behavioral, and interaction aspects were investigated throughout the whole process. Each phase of the design process was then documented with the intent of sharing potentially replicable practices and contributing to the understanding of the role that RtD can play in HRI. 


Keywords


Human-Robot Interaction; Research Through Design; Prototyping; Robotic Toy; Design for Children

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andresen, L., Boud, D., & Cohen, R. (2000). Experience-based learning. Understanding adult education and training, 2, 225-239.

Bainbridge, W. A., Hart, J. W., Kim, E. S., & Scassellati, B. (2011). The benefits of interactions with physically present robots over video-displayed agents. International Journal of Social Robotics, 3(1), 41-52.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12369-010-0082-7

Bartneck, C., Soucy, M., Fleuret, K., & Sandoval, E. B. (2015, August). The robot engine—Making the unity 3D game engine work for HRI. In Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), 2015 24th IEEE International Symposium on (pp. 431-437). IEEE.

Beer, J. M., Prakash, A., Mitzner, T. L., & Rogers, W. A. (2011). Understanding robot acceptance. Georgia Institute of Technology, 1-45.

Blow, M., Dautenhahn, K., Appleby, A., Nehaniv, C. L., & Lee, D. (2006, March). The art of designing robot faces: Dimensions for human-robot interaction. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCHI/SIGART conference on Human-robot interaction (pp. 331-332). ACM.

https://doi.org/10.1145/1121241.1121301

Boccanfuso, L., Barney, E., Foster, C., Ahn, Y. A., Chawarska, K., Scassellati, B., & Shic, F. (2016, March). Emotional robot to examine different play patterns and affective responses of children with and without ASD. In Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), 2016 11th ACM/IEEE International Conference on (pp. 19-26). IEEE

https://doi.org/10.1109/HRI.2016.7451729

Dautenhahn, K. (2002). Design spaces and niche spaces of believable social robots. In Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2002. Proceedings. 11th IEEE International Workshop on (pp. 192-197). IEEE.

https://doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2002.1045621

Dillon, A., & Morris, M. G. (1996). User acceptance of new information technology: theories and models. In Annual review of information science and technology. Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Di Salvo, C. F., Gemperle, F., Forlizzi, J., & Kiesler, S. (2002, June). All robots are not created equal: the design and perception of humanoid robot heads. In Proceedings of the 4th conference on Designing interactive systems: processes, practices, methods, and techniques (pp. 321-326). ACM.

Ferguson, E. S. (1992). Engineering and the Mind's EyeMIT Press. Cambridge, MA.

Fiebrink, R., Trueman, D., & Cook, P. R. (2009, June). A Meta-Instrument for Interactive, On-the-Fly Machine Learning. In NIME (pp. 280-285).

Frayling, C. (1993). Research in art and design.

Gaver, W. (2012, May). What should we expect from research through design? In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 937-946). ACM.

https://doi.org/10.1145/2207676.2208538

Hartson, R. (2003). Cognitive, physical, sensory, and functional affordances in interaction design. Behaviour & Information Technology, 22(5), 315-338.

https://doi.org/10.1080/01449290310001592587

Hegel, F., Eyssel, F., & Wrede, B. (2010, September). The social robot 'flobi': Key concepts of industrial design. In RO-MAN, 2010 IEEE (pp. 107-112). IEEE.

Houde, S., & Hill, C. (1997). What do prototypes prototype. Handbook of human-computer interaction, 2, 367-381.

https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-044481862-1.50082-0

Hoffman, G., & Ju, W. (2014). Designing robots with movement in mind. Journal of Human-Robot Interaction, 3(1), 89-122.

https://doi.org/10.5898/JHRI.3.1.Hoffman

House, V. F., Éireann, C. M., Foster, Á. V., & Cliath, B. Á. (2009). Creativity and the Arts in the Primary School. In Discussion Document and Proceedings of the Consultative Conference on Education.

Kuijer, L., & De Jong, A. M. (2011). Practice theory and human-centered design: A sustainable bathing example. Nordes, (4).

Langevin, G. "InMoov-Open Source 3D printed life-size robot." pp. URL: http://inmoov.fr, License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync/3.0/legalcode (2017).

Lee, M. K., Forlizzi, J., Rybski, P. E., Crabbe, F., Chung, W., Finkle, J., ... & Kiesler, S. (2009, March). The snackbot: documenting the design of a robot for long-term human-robot interaction. In Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE international conference on Human robot interaction (pp. 7-14). ACM.

https://doi.org/10.1145/1514095.1514100

Lemaignan, S., Hanheide, M., Karg, M., Khambhaita, H., Kunze, L., Lier, F., ... & Milliez, G. (2014, October). Simulation and HRI recent perspectives with the MORSE simulator. In International Conference on Simulation, Modelling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots (pp. 13-24). Springer International Publishing.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11900-7_2

Lim, Y. K., Stolterman, E., & Tenenberg, J. (2008). The anatomy of prototypes: Prototypes as filters, prototypes as manifestations of design ideas. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 15(2), 7.

https://doi.org/10.1145/1375761.1375762

Lupetti, M. L., Yao, Y., Gao, J., Mi, H., & Germak, C. (in press). Design for Learning through Play. An Exploratory Study on Chinese Perspective. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference, HCI International 2017, Vancouver, Canada.

Luria, M., Hoffman, G., Megidish, B., Zuckerman, O., & Park, S. (2016, August). Designing Vyo, a robotic Smart Home assistant: Bridging the gap between device and social agent. In Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), 2016 25th IEEE International Symposium on (pp. 1019-1025). IEEE.

Mori, M. (1970). The uncanny valley. Energy, 7(4), 33-35.

Romagnoli., L. (2017). Lorenzoromagnoli /fft_Arduino_wekinator: prototype release [Data set]. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.580300

Šabanović, S., Michalowski, M. P., & Simmons, R. (2006). Robots in the wild: Observing human-robot social interaction outside the lab. In Advanced Motion Control. 9th IEEE International Workshop on (pp. 596-601).

Šabanović, S., Bennett, C. C., & Lee, H. R. (2014a). Towards culturally robust robots: A critical social perspective on robotics and culture. In Proc. HRI Workshop on Culture-Aware Robotics 2014.

Šabanović, S., Reeder, S., & Kechavarzi, B. (2014b). Designing robots in the wild: In situ prototype evaluation for a break management robot. Journal of Human-Robot Interaction, 3(1), 70-88.

https://doi.org/10.5898/JHRI.3.1.Sabanovic

Scarfogliero, U., Stefanini, C., & Dario, P. (2007, April). Design and development of the long-jumping" grillo" mini robot. In Robotics and Automation, 2007 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 467-472). IEEE.

Scholtz, J. C. (2002). Human-robot interactions: Creating synergistic cyber forces. In Multi-Robot Systems: From Swarms to Intelligent Automata (pp. 177-184). Springer Netherlands.

Stappers, P. J., Sleeswijk Visser, F., & Keller, A. I. (2014). The role of prototypes and frameworks for structuring explorations by research through design. The Routledge Companion to Design Research, 163-174.

Stolterman, E. (2008). The nature of design practice and implications for interaction design research. International Journal of Design, 2(1).

Tanaka, F., & Matsuzoe, S. (2012). Children teach a care-receiving robot to promote their learning: Field experiments in a classroom for vocabulary learning. Journal of Human-Robot Interaction, 1(1).

https://doi.org/10.5898/JHRI.1.1.Tanaka

Ullman, D. G., Wood, S., & Craig, D. (1990). The importance of drawing in the mechanical design process. Computers & graphics, 14(2), 263-274.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0097-8493(90)90037-X

Vandevelde, C., Wyffels, F., Vanderborght, B., & Saldien, J. (2017). Do-It-Yourself Design for Social Robots: An Open-Source Hardware Platform to Encourage Innovation. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, 24(1), 86-94.

https://doi.org/10.1109/MRA.2016.2639059

Van der Lugt, R. (2005). How sketching can affect the idea generation process in design group meetings. Design studies, 26(2), 101-122.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2004.08.003

Wilson, M. (2016) Frog creates the most charming anti-iPad game ever. Fastcodesign.com (retrieved at: https://www.fastcodesign.com/3059090/frog-creates-the-most-charming-anti-ipad-game-ever)

Woods, S. N., Walters, M. L., Koay, K. L., & Dautenhahn, K. (2006, September). Methodological issues in HRI: A comparison of live and video-based methods in robot to human approach direction trials. In Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2006. ROMAN 2006. The 15th IEEE International Symposium on (pp. 51-58). IEEE.

https://doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2006.314394

Zimmerman, J., Stolterman, E., & Forlizzi, J. (2010, August). An analysis and critique of Research through Design: towards a formalization of a research approach. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (pp. 310-319). ACM.

https://doi.org/10.1145/1858171.1858228

Zimmerman, J., & Forlizzi, J. (2014). Research through design in HCI. In Ways of Knowing in HCI (pp. 167-189). Springer New York.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0378-8_8

Zünd, F., Ryffel, M., Magnenat, S., Marra, A., Nitti, M., Kapadia, M., ... & Sumner, R. W. (2015, November). Augmented creativity: bridging the real and virtual worlds to enhance creative play. In SIGGRAPH Asia 2015 Mobile Graphics and Interactive Applications (p. 21). ACM.

A">https://doi.org/10.1145/2818427.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7559/citarj.v9i1.303

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Journal of Science and Technology of the Arts
Revista de Ciência e Tecnologia das Artes
ISSN: 1646-9798
e-ISSN: 2183-0088
Portuguese Catholic University | Porto

    

Esta revista científica é financiada por Fundos Nacionais através da FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia


 Governo da República Portuguesa